Invalid science

Invalid science consists of scientific claims based on experiments that cannot be reproduced or that are contradicted by experiments that can be reproduced. Recent analyses indicate that the proportion of invalid claims in the scientific literature is steadily increasing. The number of retractions has grown tenfold over the past decade. But they still make up no more than 0.2% of the 1.4m papers published annually in scholarly journals - wikipedia

The U.S. Office of Research Integrity (ORI), investigates scientific misconduct.

# Incidence

Science magazine ranked first for the number of articles retracted at 70, just edging out PNAS, which retracted 69.

Thirty-two of Science's retractions were due to fraud or suspected fraud, and 37 to error. A subsequent "retraction index" indicated that journals with relatively high impact factors, such as Science, Nature (Nature magazine) and Cell (Cell (journal)), had a higher rate of retractions.

Under 0.1% of papers in PubMed had were retracted of more than 25 million papers going back to the 1940s -news.sciencemag.org

The fraction of retracted papers due to scientific misconduct was estimated at two-thirds, according to studies of 2047 papers published since 1977. Misconducted included fraud and plagiarism. Another one-fifth were retracted because of mistakes, and the rest were pulled for unknown or other reasons.